Trivandrum

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Thiruvananthapuram is formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the “Evergreen city of India”, the city is characterized by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills. The city has a population of 957,730 inhabitants and a metropolitan population of 1.68 million making it the most populous city in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub in India and contributes 80% of Kerala’s software exports.

Thiruvananthapuram is built on seven hills by the sea shore and is located at 8.5°N 76.9°E on the west coast, near the southern tip of mainland India. The city situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by Laccadive Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. The average elevation of the city is 16 ft (4.9 m) above sea level. The Geological Survey of India has identified Thiruvananthapuram as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone. Thiruvananthapuram lies on the shores of Karamana and Killi rivers. Vellayani, Thiruvallam and Aakulam backwaters lies in the city.The Soil type in the middle part of the city is dark brown loamy laterite soil high in phosphates. Laterisation is a result of the heavy rainfall and humid conditions. On western coastal regions of the city, sandy loam soil is found and on eastern hilly parts of the district, rich dark brown loam of granite origin is found.

The city was ruled by the Ays and was captured by the rulers of Venad in the 10th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. In 1741 Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Colachel. In 1745, he shifted the capital of Travancore from Padmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram. The kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha (Lord Vishnu). The rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha.

 

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